Balsamic and powerful scent
Method of Extraction
Category/Type of Attar
The word 'attar', 'ittar' or 'othr' is basically an Arabic word which means 'scent'; this in turn is believed to have been derived from the Persian word Atr, meaning 'fragrance'. Attar (Arabic: ????) also known as ittar is a natural perfume oil derived from botanical sources, such as flowers (jasmine, rose, sandalwood and more), herbs, spices, or barks. Oils can also be expressed by chemical means but generally natural perfumes which qualify as Attars are distilled naturally. Once obtained, these oils are generally distilled into a wood base such as sandalwood and then aged. The aging period can last from one to ten years depending on the botanicals used and the results desired.
large number of references to cosmetics and perfumes in Sanskrit literature
were found like in the Brhatsamhita is a 6th century Sanskrit encyclopaedia by
Varahamihira (505 AD – 587 AD). Cosmetics and perfumes making were mainly
practiced for the purpose of worship, sale and sensual enjoyment. Gandhayukti
gave recipes for making scents. It gives a list of eight aromatic ingredients
used for making scents. They were: Rodhara, Usira, Bignonia, Aguru, Musta,
Vana, Priyangu, and Pathya. The Gandhayukti also gave recipes for mouth
perfumes, bath powders, incense and talcum powder. The manufacture of rose
water began perhaps in the nineteenth century AD. The earliest distillation of
attar was mentioned in the Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita. The Harshacharita,
written in 7th century AD in northern India, mentions use of fragrant agarwood
oil. In ancient India, attar was prepared by placing precious flowers and
sacred plants into a water or vegetable oil. Slowly the plants and flowers
would infuse the water/oil with their delicate fragrance. The plant and flower
material would then be removed and a symphony of their aromatic beauty would be
held in the attar. These attars were then worn as a sacred perfume or to
anoint. Some of the first lovers of Attars were the Mughal nobles of India.
Jasmine attar was the favourite perfume of the Nizams of the Hyderabad state.
Attar figures into some of the romantic stories of a bygone era. Its patrons
included great poets like the legendary Mirza Ghalib. When Ghalib met his
beloved in the winter, he rubbed his hands and face with attar hina. In
Ain-e-Akbari, Abul Fazal, has mentioned that Akbar used attar daily and burnt
incense sticks (bakhoor) in gold and silver censers. A princess's bath was
incomplete without incense and attar.
South Asian Attars may be broadly categorized into following types of flavour or ingredients used.
Floral Attars – Attars manufactured from single species of flower are coming under this category. These are:-
· Gulab ex Rosa damascena or Rosa Edword
· Kewra ex Pandanus odoratissimus
· Motia ex Jasminum sambac
· Gulhina ex lawsonia inermis
· Chameli ex Jasminum grandiflorum
· Kadam ex Anthoephalus cadamba
Herbal Attars - Attars manufactured from combination of floral, herbal & spices come under this category. Hina and its various forms viz., Shamama, Shamam –tul – Amber, Musk Amber and Musk Hina.
Attars which are neither floral nor herbal also come under this category. Attar Mitti falls under this category and is produced by distillation of baked earth over base material.
Attars can also be classified based on their effect on human body such as
Warm Attars' – Attars such as Musk, Amber, Kesar (Saffron), Oud, are used in winters, they increase the body temperature.
Cool Attars' – like Rose, Jasmine, Khus, Kewda, Mogra, are used in summers and are cooling for the body.
The South Asian perfumes in the past were used by the elite, particularly kings and queens. Also it is used in Hindu temples. Today it is used in numerous ways:
· It is used by many people as a personal perfume, particularly by Muslims due to absence of alcohol.
· Perfumes have the application in pharmaceutical industry.
· Perfumes of Rose & Kewra are used in traditional Pakistani /Indian/ Bengali sweets, for imparting flavour.
· Pan Masala and Gutka is the largest consumer of Pakistani/Indian/ Bengali perfumes. The reason for using it is its extraordinary tenacity along with characteristic to withstand with tobacco note. The perfumes used are Rose, Kewra, Mehndi, Hina, Shamama, Mitti, Marigold etc.
· Tobacco is smaller segment for perfume consumption as compared to above industry. The perfumes used are mainly kewra & Rose. Along with Pan Masala & Gutkha it contributes to more the 75% of perfume consumption.
· Betel nut is smaller segment for perfume consumption as compared to above two industries. The perfumes used are mainly Kewra & Rose.
· Hazardous No Data
· Contraindications Not Known
· Cautions Not to be consumed Orally. External Use Only
Organ Specific Effects
· Skin corrosion / irritation: Not Specified
· Serious eye damage / irritation: May have reversible effects on the eyes, such as eye irritation which is totally reversible by the end of observation at 21 days.
· Acute Toxicity: Not Specified
· Respiratory sensitization: Not applicable under normal use.
· Germ cell mutagenicity: Cause for concern owing to the possibility that it may induce heritable mutations in the germ cells of humans.
· Carcinogenicity: IARH: No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC. ACGIH: No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC.
· NTP: No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC.
· OSHA: No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC.
· Reproductive toxicity: Not specified
· STOT-single exposure: Not specified
· STOT-related exposure: Not specified
· Aspiration hazard: Not specified
· Ecotoxicity: No data available.
· Bioaccumulation: No data available
· Mobility in soil: No data available
· Persistence and degradability: No data available
· PBT and vPvB assessment: No data available